The Dittus-Boelter equation gives the heat transfer coefficient h for heat transfer from the fluid flowing through a pipe to the pipe walls. It was determined by. DITTUS-BOELTER EQUATION. (see Supercritical heat transfer; Tubes, single phase heat transfer in). Number of views: Article added: 8 February Thus the Dittus-Boelter equation (eq) should be used,. Thus h can be calculated for the known values of k, and d, which comes out to be. Energy balance is.

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The Sieder-Tate correlation is normally solved by an iterative bkelter, as the viscosity factor will change as the Nusselt number changes. Two correlations are provided for laminar flow, depending on the magnitude of the Graetz number.

Dittus-Boelter Equation

Heat and Mass Transfer. To calculate the Prandtl numberwe have to know:. Use dmy dates from September eqiation International Journal of Thermal Sciences.

In comparison to fuel pellet, there is almost no heat generation in the fuel cladding cladding is slightly heated by radiation. The hydraulic diameter of the fuel channelD his equal to 13,85 mm. In this context, convection includes both advection and diffusion. The pressure is maintained at approximately 16MPa. The Grashof Number provides a measure of the significance of natural convection. Named after Wilhelm Nusseltit is a dimensionless number.

A Nusselt number close to one, namely convection and conduction of similar magnitude, is characteristic of ” slug flow ” or laminar flow. Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer.

What is the geometry? This number gives an idea that how heat transfer rate in convection is related to the resulting of heat transfer rates in conduction. Check the Reynolds number to decide on laminar, transition, or turbulent flow. This movement raises h values in slow moving fluids near surfaces, beolter is rarely significant in turbulent flow.


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Dimensionless numbers in fluid mechanics. The frictional losses in this case are produced in the main flow primarily by the protruding roughness elements, and the contribution of the laminar sublayer is negligible. As a result, the convective heat transfer coefficient significantly increases and therefore at higher elevations, the temperature difference T Zr,1 — Boeter bulk significantly decreases.

The fluid properties used to calculate the Grashof number should be evaluated at the film temperaturethe arithmetic mean between the bulk and wall boeoter.

RMP Lecture Notes

The Dittus-Boelter equation is valid for [7]. Such errors may be reduced through the use of more recent, but generally more complex, correlations such as the Gnielinski correlation. Otherwise, for forced convection, the Nusselt number is generally a function boelyer the Eauation number and the Prandtl numberor. When choosing a correlation, begin by asking: By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

The Dittus-Boelter equation is:. It is easy to solve but is less accurate when there is a large temperature difference across the fluid. Therefore a modified form of Dittus-Boelter equation was proposed by Sieder and Tate The Nusselt number may be obtained by a non dimensional analysis of Fourier’s law since it is equal to the dimensionless temperature gradient at the surface:.

The result is circulation — “natural” or “free” convection. The Dittus-Boelter correlation may be used for small to moderate temperature differences, T wall — T avgwith all properties evaluated at an averaged temperature T avg. Gnielinski’s correlation for turbulent flow in tubes: When the difference between the surface and the fluid temperatures is large, it may be necessary to account for the variation of viscosity with temperature.

Nusselt number – Wikipedia

Different geometries, boiling, and condensation will be covered bboelter later lectures. It is tailored to smooth tubes, so use for rough tubes most commercial applications is cautioned.


What is the flow regime? The mass transfer analog of the Nusselt number is the Sherwood number. A similar non-dimensional parameter is Biot numberwith the difference that the thermal conductivity is of the solid body and not the fluid. The right hand side is now the ratio of the temperature gradient at the surface to the reference temperature gradient, while the left hand side is similar to the Biot modulus.

Paul Reuss, Neutron Physics. If the flow is laminar, is natural convection important?

Convection Dimensionless numbers of fluid mechanics Dimensionless numbers of thermodynamics Fluid dynamics Heat transfer. Selection of the characteristic length should be in the direction of growth or thickness of the boundary layer; some examples of characteristic length are: Example The Dittus-Boelter equation is a good approximation where temperature differences between bulk fluid and heat transfer surface are minimal, avoiding equation complexity and iterative solving.

This takes the form of the boelger of the viscosity at the bulk fluid temperature to the viscosity at the wall temperature. All heat generated in the fuel must be transferred boeelter conduction through the cladding and therefore the inner surface is hotter than the outer surface.

The convection and conduction heat flows are parallel to each other and to the surface normal of the boundary surface, and are all perpendicular to the mean fluid flow in the simple case. Heating and cooling effect the velocity profile of a dittuss fluid differently because of the temperature dependence of viscosity.

Consequently, you must be very careful to use the form that matches the correlation you are using.